computer science glossary

If you have purchased a print title that contains an access token, please see the token for information about how to register your code. Imagine you have to teach a kid how to shower. A greedy algorithm picks the best immediate choice and never reconsiders its choices. Many commands put together make up algorithms and computer programs. Storage method in which data is written and read with a laser for archival or backup purposes. [TechTarget], An attribute of any system that consistently produces the same results, preferably meeting or exceeding its requirements. A burglar pretends to be a plumber and you unlock the door for him. For online downloading, the download time is directly proportional to the movie file sizes (input). So I go out and hail a taxicab and tell the driver to take me to this place in San Francisco. A procedure that specifies what should happen when a specific event occurs. IP address that does not change once it is assigned. A loop with a predetermined beginning, end, and increment (step interval). Sharing identical keys works fine among 2 people. You have no idea how I did that. Special purpose computers that is embedded in another device to control actions or features of that device. Are programming languages which use more English-like statements that are generally easier for humans to understand. Dictionary of algorithms and data structures. A simplified representation of something more complex. You are too lazy and simply don’t have the time to evaluate each of them. The glossary includes definitions of terms used in the statements in the framework. [MDESE, 2016]. Expected end users of a computational artifact or system. Let’s assume that O(1) and O(n) are the worst-case scenarios of the example above. So that you don’t just linger around the same area and reduce your probability of getting stuck. A step-by-step process to complete a task. [TechTarget], A classification of data that is distinguished by its attributes and the types of operations that can be performed on it. That’s how computer works. When you withdraw money from ATM, transaction A (the bank transfer) will stop and allow transaction B to carry on first because it has higher priority. More: P vs. NP and the Computational Complexity Zoo (video), Simple Wikipedia, Read Also: The Lord of the Rings Analogy To Programming Languages [Infographic]. You can’t pay for one, you don’t have dollars in your pocket. Software licenced under strict conditions. Here are some of the popular implementations of agile development methodology: So you graduated. Both wait for each other to complete. A type of data or expression with two possible values: Any set of instructions expressed in a programming language. Act that makes it a criminal offence to make unauthorised access to computer material. However, there’s no map provided and it’s very foggy. Let’s use the same banking system analogy with a different scenario. boil things down to the most fundamental truths and then reason up from there. Objects are like people. Next, you wonder why you suck at estimating development time: And methodologies are often implemented wrongly: So here you go. One or more independently developed modules make up a program. Network arrangement where a client program requests a resource or service from a server program and the server program fulfils this request. Holds the address (locations) of the next instructions. Translates source code into machine code, line by line. Over 6,500 entriesPreviously named A Dictionary of Computing, this bestselling dictionary has been fully revised by a team of computer specialists, making it the most up-to-date and authoritative guide to computing available. (Eds.). Searches for a value by traversing the data tree level by level. Computers that exist only to provide things to others. So Alice come out with a brilliant solution. Circuit component which stores and discharges electrical current. He fixes your leaking pipe and everything looks perfectly normal. In computer security, verification that a message has not been altered or corrupted. Harry Potter: Complete 8-Film Collection [Blu-ray], Beautiful and configurable visualizations of sorting algorithm, more Droste effect examples to get you drowsier, Dynamic Programming – From Novice to Advanced (TopCoder), Tutorial for Dynamic Programming (CodeChef), P vs. NP and the Computational Complexity Zoo (video), The Lord of the Rings Analogy To Programming Languages [Infographic], Interactive explanation on how computer works, Distributed Denial-of-service Attack (DDoS), Public Key Cryptography: Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange (video), Before They Were Famous – Early Posts From Larry Page, Linus Torvalds, and More, 100 Most Brilliant Tech Hacks You Need To Know Right Now, Which Programming Language Should I Learn First? Every time the phone rings, you have to stop whatever task you are working on. Values which should be rejected by the program. That’s what objects are. Analog. [Techopedia], A set of conditions or variables under which a tester will determine whether the system being tested satisfies requirements or works correctly. Examples include Code Studio, Scratch, Blockly, and Swift. Credit belongs to the original authors, especially to Peter Day, from whose glossary most of the terms were collected. It is the number of dierent numbers that you can store in a byte (8 bits), usually ranging from 0 to 255. Solving P vs NP problem is like solving 1 + 1 to them! 1. Provides a user with proof that they have the right to use software because they purchased it legally. The smallest unit of data in computing represented by a 1 in binary. cultural practices: The displays and behaviors of a culture. You have one chance. We hate spam as much as you do! The piece of code that you add to a program to indicate that the program should run the code inside a function at a certain time. Step-by-step procedure for solving a problem. The following terms and definitions were collected from the web sites. Each time, you take the exact same path that leads you to the highest peak ever recorded, but somewhere in the middle of your journey, you choose a slightly different route. Copyright © 2012 - 2016 Andrew Butterfield holds an honours degree in Engineering and a PhD in Computer Science and is currently Head of the Foundation and Methods Group at Trinity College Dublin, as well as Director of Undergraduate Teaching and Learning in the School of Computer Science and Statistics. They’re living, breathing things that have knowledge inside them about how to do things and have memory inside them so they can remember things. [NIST/DADS], An element of a larger group. Whereas digital data is a set of individual symbols, analog data is stored in physical media, such as the surface grooves on a vinyl record, the magnetic tape of a VCR cassette, or other nondigital media. ... National Institute of Science and Technology Dictionary of Algorithms and Data Structures Pieterse, V., & Black, P. E. More: Dynamic Programming – From Novice to Advanced (TopCoder), Tutorial for Dynamic Programming (CodeChef).

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